Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
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Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are two separate types of diabetes mellitus, a long-lasting metabolic disorder that affects how the body regulates glucose. Although they share some similarities, they differ in terms of risk factors, age of onset, pathophysiology, and critical symptoms. Type 1 Diabetes is mainly influenced by genetics, particularly a family history of the disease. In contrast, Type 2 Diabetes is predominantly associated with lifestyle factors like a sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and obesity.
Type 1 Diabetes generally emerges during childhood or teenage years and, in most instances, is diagnosed before age 20. On the other hand, Type 2 Diabetes commonly appears in adulthood, with the likelihood of developing the condition tending to rise with age. Regarding pathophysiology, Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to erroneously attack and destroy the pancreas’s beta cells responsible for producing insulin. Meanwhile, Type 2 Diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to insulin’s effects, resulting in a relative shortage of insulin and elevated blood sugar levels.
Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, and retinopathy are critical manifestations that can arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, but the extent and likelihood of these complications may vary between the two types (Chertman et al., 2020).
The most important topic that must be taught to diabetic patients is self-management. Both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes require daily management of blood sugar levels through medication, diet, and exercise. Patients must learn how to monitor their blood sugar, administer insulin or other medications, and make healthy lifestyle choices to prevent complications. They should also be educated on the signs and symptoms of critical manifestations and how to respond in an emergency. By teaching patients how to manage their condition effectively, they can improve their quality of life, prevent complications, and reduce the risk of hospitalization or death.
Chertman, L. S., Neuman, D., & Vendrame, F. (2020). Update on diabetes medical management: Epidemiology and treatment. Behavioral Diabetes: Social-Ecological Perspectives for Pediatric and Adult Populations, 261–275. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33286-0_18
Zaccardi, F., Webb, D. R., Yates, T., & Davies, M. J. (2016). Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year perspective. The postgraduate medical journal, 92(1084), 63-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133281