How do vaccines work?

Submit a 1 page (single spaced) review paper answering the following questions in your own words:

How does SARS-CoV-2 affect your cells (spike protein and ACE-2 receptor)? How do vaccines work? How is your immune system stimulated? Explain the differences between the types of vaccines that are currently available (live vs inactivated vs toxoid vs conjugated) (CDC vacsafe pdf). How do the mRNA/DNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates work and what are the differences (focus on Moderna, BioNtech/Pfizer, AstraZeneca/Oxford)?

You may use other sources than the ones provided below, but DO NOT use news sources or opinion-based articles. You can search for articles using